Department of Physiology and Immunology, “Titu Maiorescu” University, Faculty of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
The complex gut microbial ecosystem starts to build before the birth of an individual. The development of the perinatal gut microbiota is influenced by multiple factors including gestational age, mode of delivery, maternal microbiota, infant feeding method, genetics,
and environmental factors such as the choice of food.
The first, and most important, contribution to the genesis of the microbiome is ver- tical transmission of maternal microbiota. Most babies get their first big dose of microbes at birth, while traveling through the birth canal, then pick up more while breastfeeding.
Early microbes helped shape your immune system, your digestive system, even your brain. The gut microbiome, and particularly the study of its origins in neonates, has become subtopics of great interest within the field of genomics.
The diversity and colonization pattern of the gut microbiota were significantly asso- ciated to the mode of delivery during the first three months of life, however the observed significant differences disappears after 6 months of infants life.
Moreover, bifidobacteria are the most represented bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy infants.
This brief review seeks to summarize recent literature regarding the origins and establishment of the neonatal gut microbiome, beginning in utero, and how it is affected by neonatal nutritional status (breastfed versus formula fed) and gestational age (term versus
preterm). Finally, we review directions to consider for further research to promote human health within this field.
microbiota, gut microbiome delivery mode