The prostate, an adjacent gland of the male urogenital tract, is located behind the pubic symphysis, below the bladder and anteriorly of the rectum, surrounding the first part of the urethra and its smooth sphincter (Fig.1). It is a glandular organ, has the shape of a flattened chestnut, according to Winslow, having an average length of 3 cm, width 4 cm, thickness between 2-5 cm and a weight of 20-25 g, the size increases with age. The prostate contains 30-35 small glands, secreting prostate fluid that does not allow the destruction of sperm (7, 35).
Neoplastic lesions of the prostate are common in men aged 50-70 years and are often diagnosed late (35). Prostate carcinoma is part of the group of osteophilic and lymphophilic cancers.
Recent studies have reported that the intestinal microbiome contributes to the tumorigenesis of some viscera, in this case, the adnexal gland of the genital apparatus-prostate. Prostate dysbiosis has been associated with prostate cancer, and although there are not enough studies, researchers support the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal microbiome may be significantly different in men with this condition. These differences may play a role in the pathology of prostate cancer.
Moreover, high estrogens levels have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer, thus supporting the hypothesis that estroboloma has an important contribution to the development of prostate cancer. Inflammation of the prostate may increase the risk of prostate cancer. However, the precise association between the urinary microbiome, the content of seminal liquid and of prostate secretions with prostate neoplasm is unclear.
This review paper aims to develop current information on the relationship between the human microbiota and prostate cancer; most studies have focused on direct interactions, including the influence of prostate infections on the risk of cancer and, more recently, on the correlation between urinary microbiome composition and prostate cancer.
microbiota, microbiome, prostate cancer, gut microbiome, urinary microbiome