Department of Physiology and Immunology, “Titu Maiorescu” University,
Faculty of Medicine, Bucharest, Romania
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy in women of reproductive age. The etiology and pathogenesis of PCOS remain unclear, caused by several factors, mainly comprising genetic, neuroendocrine and metabolic causes. What is characteristic of PCOS is the excessive production of androgens by the ovaries. In recent years, a new concept, called “microgender”, reveals a potential relationship between sex hormones and the intestinal microbiota.
Recent studies on the intestinal microbiota have thus suggested the possibility that intestinal dysbiosis may be a new theory for the emergence of PCOS. The secretion of some mediators of the brain-intestinal axis is regulated by the intestinal microbiota. It is interesting to explore the role of the intestinal microbiota in PCOS, as androgen levels in women with PCOS are always increased. These studies indicated the bidirectional regulation of the intestinal microbiota and the endocrine system. The interaction between the intestinal microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disorders in PCOS remains unclear. Studies have suggested a modified composition of the intestinal microbiota of women with PCOS.
The paper presents new horizons regarding the key role of the intestinal microbiota in regulating sex hormones in both health and disease conditions. Recent research has also suggested that women with PCOS have an intestinal microbiome with fewer species than women without this condition. The use of probiotics might improve PCOS symptoms in patients by regulating the intestinal microbiome.
polycystic ovary syndrome, intestinal microbiota, ovarian dysfunction